Home 1st Year Chemistry Notes FSC 1st Year Chemistry Chapter 8 Long Questions Notes PDF

FSC 1st Year Chemistry Chapter 8 Long Questions Notes PDF


In this post, I am sharing FSC 1st Year Chemistry Chapter 8 Long Questions Notes PDF for the students of FSC Part 1. Name of 11th Chemistry Chapter 8 is Chemical Equilibrium. So the students can download Chemical Equilibrium Chapter Long Questions notes in PDF format from here. This file contains 44 pages. These Chemistry Notes are for all the boards working under Punjab Board like Gujranwala Board, Lahore Board, Faisalabad Board, Multan Board, Rawalpindi Board, Sargodha Board, DG Kahn Board, and Sahiwal Board. Here are complete 1st Year Chemistry Notes.

11th Class Chemistry Chapter 8 Chemical Equilibrium Notes PDF Download

Chemical Equilibrium

Reversible and Irreversible Reactions

A chemical reaction can take place in both the directions, i.e. forward and reverse.


Those reactions, which proceed only in one direction under a given set of conditions, is called as irreversible chemical reactions


Those reaction which can proceed in forward as well as in backward direction under a given set of conditions are called as reversible chemical reactions


The state of a reversible reaction at which the rate of forward reaction become equal to the rate of the backward reaction, and the concentrations of the reactions and the products does not change with the time is called state of chemical equilibrium


Law of mass action states that the rate at which the reaction proceeds is directly proportional to the product of active masses of the reactants.

 This relationship, which was derived by C.M. Goldberg and P.Waage in 1864


 Le chateleir studied the effect of concentration, pressure and temperature on equilibrium.

 “This principle states that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system acts in such a way so as to nullify, as far as possible, the effects of that stress”


 The addition on a common ion to the solution of a less soluble electrolyte suppresses its ionization and the concentration of the unionized species increases, which may come out as a participitate.


“Those solutions, which resist the change in their pH when a small amount of an acid or a base added to them, is called buffer solutions” They have specific constant value of pH and their pH values do not change on dilution and on keeping for a long time.


“The capability of the buffer solution to resist the change in its pH is called its buffer capacity “it can be measured quantitatively that how much extra acid or base, the solution can absorb before the buffer is essentially destroyed. Buffer capacity of a buffer solution are determined by the size of actual molarities of its components, so a chemist must decide before making the buffer solutions, what outer limits of change in its pH can be tolerated.

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