Home 2nd Year Physics Notes Class 12 Physics Chapter 21 Notes- Nuclear Physics

Class 12 Physics Chapter 21 Notes- Nuclear Physics


In this post, I am sharing the Class 12 Physics Chapter 21 Notes PDF for the students of Intermediate Part 2. This chapter’s name is Nuclear Physics. Students can download the Class 12 Physics Chapter 21 Notes PDF on their laptops or mobile. These Physics Notes are for all the boards working under the Punjab Board like Gujranwala Board, Lahore Board, Faisalabad Board, Multan Board, Rawalpindi Board, Sargodha Board, DG Kahn Board, and Sahiwal Board. Here are the complete FSC 2nd Year Physics Notes PDF chapters.

FSC Part 2 Physics Chapter 21 Notes – Nuclear Physics

Class 12 Physics Notes

Atomic Nucleus

At the centre of each and every atom there is an infinitesimally small nucleus. The entire positive charge of the atom and about 99.9 percent of its mass is concentrated in the nucleus. The nucleus is so small that the radius of the atom is 10-5 times the radius of the nucleus.

Atomic Number.

The number of protons inside the nucleus is called atomic number or charge number of an atom.

It is denoted by Z. Thus total charge of any nucleus is Ze where is the charge on one proton.

Mass Number

The combinesd number of all the protons and neutrons in a nucleus is known as its mass number and it is denoted by A.


The nuclei of an element that have the same charge number but different mass number are called isotopes of the element.

In an isotpes of an element, the number of protons is the same, but the number of neutrons is different.

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