Home 2nd Year Physics Notes Class 12 Physics Chapter 12 Notes PDF – Electrostatics

# Class 12 Physics Chapter 12 Notes PDF – Electrostatics

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In this post, I am sharing Class 12 Physics Chapter 12 Notes PDF for the students of Intermediate Part 2. This chapter’s name is Electrostatics. Students can download the 12th class chapter 12 Electrostatics Notes PDF on their laptop or mobile. These Physics Notes are for all the boards working under the Punjab Board like Gujranwala Board, Lahore Board, Faisalabad Board, Multan Board, Rawalpindi Board, Sargodha Board, DG Kahn Board, and Sahiwal Board. Here are the complete FSC 2nd Year Physics Notes PDF chapters.

## FSC Part 2 Physics Chapter 12 Notes – Electrostatics

Class 12 Physics Notes

## Define Electrostatics?

It is the branch of physics which deals with charges at rest, under the action of electric forces.

## Describe electric charges?

### Electric Charge:

It is the property of a material due to which it attracts or repels other bodies. In 1600 A.D. Gilbert showed that some of the substance when rubbed with other acquired the property of attraction.

When an ebonite rod is rubbed with fur it starts gaining electrons and therefore obtains a negative charge and when glass rod is rubbed with silk cloth it starts losing electrons and therefore obtains positive charge. Therefore, by the law of static electric charges, two opposite charged objects attract each other.According to modern concept, each substance consists of atoms, the atom has a central part called the nucleus a round which the electrons revolve. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. The proton has a positive charge and the electron has a negative charge. So the atom on the whole is neutral. The total positive charge and the electron has a negative charge on thhe nucleus is equal to the total negative charge on the electrons. Thus when one metal rubbed with another, sharing of elecrons take place. That is one loses electrons and other gains elements.

## Describe Coulomb’s Law?

### Introductio

There are two kinds of charges, positive and negative charges. The qualities investigations made in privious classes revealed that similar charges repel and opposite charges attract each other, with a force known as force of interaction. To find magnitude and direction of such electrostatic interaction between charges coulomb carreid out series of experiments using an apparatus know as Torison Balance and proposed a law as follows.

### Statement

This law states that “the force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers”.

### Explanation

Consider two point charges q1 and q2 having a distance r between them. If F is the force, then according to Coulob’s law